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What is periodontal disease?

Periodontal disease, also known as gum disease is generally due to bacteria in the mouth infecting the tissue around the teeth. In its early stage, called gingivitis, the gums become swollen, red, and may bleed. In its more serious form, called periodontitis, the gums can pull away from the tooth, bone can be lost, and the teeth may loosen or fall out. Periodontitis is associated with an increased risk of stroke, heart disease and other serious health issue. Therefore, periodontitis is ranked at the top of the list of dangerous oral diseases.

The causes of periodontal disease

Poor oral hygiene or uncontrolled bacteria from dental plaque and the toxins produced by that bacteria cause periodontal disease.

Diabetes that is not controlled well leads to higher blood sugar (glucose) levels in the mouth fluids. This promotes the growth of bacteria that can cause gum disease.

Compared to non-smokers, smokers have a higher tendency to the formation of periodontal pockets, which increase the probability to suffer from more severe periodontal disease.

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You can be vigilant about your oral health by looking out for these warning signs of periodontal disease:

« Swollen, dusky red or purplish gum, tender when touched

« Gums receding or pulling away from the tooth

« Abnormal tooth sensitivity, especially around the gumline

« Loose teeth or painful chewing

« Bad breath or a bad taste in the mouth

« New spaces developing between your teeth

« Loss of teeth

« Bleeding gums when brush teeth

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Stages of periodontal disease

Periodontal disease is broken up into four separate stages

Stage 1: Gingivitis is the result of a buildup of plaque around the teeth

Stage 2: Slight periodontal signs include increased swelling or redness of the gums, bad breath, bleeding during brushing or flossing, and probing depths that are between four and five millimeters

Stage 3: The same symptoms as stage two occur but probing depths are greater at six to seven millimeters which allows for even more bacteria to attack, not only your bones, but your blood stream and immune system as well.

Stage 4: Advanced periodontal disease causes bone loss, red, swollen gums that ooze pus, cold sensitivity, further loosening of teeth, painful chewing, and severe halitosis. This stage requires periodontal surgery or periodontal laser therapy in order to clean the deep bacteria-filled pockets that have formed.

If left untreated, stage four periodontal disease leads to spacing or gaps between the teeth, gum recession, patients needing dentures, and other overall health problems that can be serious.

Types of periodontitis

There are three common types of periodontitis:

- Chronic periodontitis: is the most common type in adults, sometimes children also experience with chronic periodontal disease. Chronic periodontitis originates from tartar that stays on the teeth for a long time, destroying the gums and bones leading to tooth loss.

- Aggressive periodontitis: is a form of periodontal disease that usually occurs during puberty and is linked to genetics. The aggressive periodontitis has a rapid growth rate and spreads rapidly. Bone resorption and gingivitis happen very fast even though plaque and tartar do not appear.

- Necrotizing periodontal disease: Characterized by dead gum tissue, lack of blood supply to ligaments and bones that support the root of the tooth leading to severe infection and necrosis. This type of periodontitis is common in people with immunosuppression such as patients with cancer, malnutrition, HIV / AIDS, etc.

Treatment of periodontitis

If periodontitis is not serious, you can go to the clinic to checked and arrange a treatment plan without surgery such as:

- Tartar cleaning: The doctor cleans plaque and bacteria that accumulate on the surface of the teeth, tartar under the gums with specialized dental tools.

- Root brushing: The procedure smooth the root surface, prevents bacteria from continuing to cling to the teeth to form plaque.

- Take antibiotics: Antibiotics can prevent bacteria - the main cause of periodontal disease, so antibiotics are effective for controlling inflammation of the gums and periodontal disease.

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However, if periodontitis is serious and the above methods are no longer effective, doctors of Cam Tu Dental will advise the following treatment solutions:

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If you recognize any of these symptoms, make an appointment with your dentist for an evaluation.

How to prevent periodontitis?

Periodontitis is often rooted in poor oral hygiene habits. To prevent periodontal disease and protect your oral health, here are a few things you need to know:

  • Practice regular oral hygiene, brush your teeth 2-3 times a day, before going to bed and after each meal.
  • Use floss at least once a day to clean food plaque that cannot be cleaned when brushing your teeth. It is best to floss before brushing your teeth in the evening before bed.
  • Come to a reputable dentist to check teeth and clean tartar periodically from 6 months to 1 year. Tartar cleaning will protect your oral health, but choosing good dentistry will protect the enamel during the procedure. Doctors at Cam Tu Dental often combine tartar cleaning and oral health check to detect dental diseases early and advise suitable solutions to patients before the disease develops seriously.

Above are the basic knowledge about periodontal disease. Hopefully through this article you have found useful information to prevent periodontitis and learn how to protect your oral health. However, because the periodontal does not have many obvious signs and is often mistaken for other oral diseases, Cam Tu dental doctors recommend that you visit the dental facilities early to be examined for any abnormal signs on the teeth.

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